线程池之ThreadPoolExecutor使用
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线程池之ThreadPoolExecutor使用
编辑时间:2019-05-06 18:05 作者:毛毛小妖 浏览量:196 评论数:0

ThreadPoolExecutor提供了四个构造方法: 

public ThreadPoolExecutor(int corePoolSize,
                              int maximumPoolSize,
                              long keepAliveTime,
                              TimeUnit unit,
                              BlockingQueue<Runnable> workQueue);
public ThreadPoolExecutor(int corePoolSize,
                              int maximumPoolSize,
                              long keepAliveTime,
                              TimeUnit unit,
                              BlockingQueue<Runnable> workQueue,
                              ThreadFactory threadFactory);
public ThreadPoolExecutor(int corePoolSize,
                              int maximumPoolSize,
                              long keepAliveTime,
                              TimeUnit unit,
                              BlockingQueue<Runnable> workQueue,
                              RejectedExecutionHandler handler);
public ThreadPoolExecutor(int corePoolSize,
                              int maximumPoolSize,
                              long keepAliveTime,
                              TimeUnit unit,
                              BlockingQueue<Runnable> workQueue,
                              ThreadFactory threadFactory,
                              RejectedExecutionHandler handler);

我们以最后一个构造方法(参数最多的那个),对其参数进行解释:

序号 名称 类型 含义
1 corePoolSize int 核心线程池大小
2 maximumPoolSize int 最大线程池大小
3 keepAliveTime long 线程最大空闲时间
4 unit TimeUnit 时间单位
5 workQueue BlockingQueue<Runnable> 线程等待队列
6 threadFactory ThreadFactory 线程创建工厂
7 handler RejectedExecutionHandler 拒绝策略

知道了各个参数的作用后,我们开始构造符合我们期待的线程池。首先看JDK给我们预定义的几种线程池:

一、预定义线程池
  1. FixedThreadPool
public static ExecutorService newFixedThreadPool(int nThreads) {
        return new ThreadPoolExecutor(nThreads, nThreads,
                                      0L, TimeUnit.MILLISECONDS,
                                      new LinkedBlockingQueue<Runnable>());
    }

 

corePoolSize与maximumPoolSize相等,即其线程全为核心线程,是一个固定大小的线程池,是其优势;
keepAliveTime = 0 该参数默认对核心线程无效,而FixedThreadPool全部为核心线程;
workQueue 为LinkedBlockingQueue(无界阻塞队列),队列最大值为Integer.MAX_VALUE。如果任务提交速度持续大余任务处理速度,会造成队列大量阻塞。因为队列很大,很有可能在拒绝策略前,内存溢出。是其劣势;
FixedThreadPool的任务执行是无序的; 

适用场景:可用于Web服务瞬时削峰,但需注意长时间持续高峰情况造成的队列阻塞。 

  1. CachedThreadPool
 public static ExecutorService newCachedThreadPool() {
        return new ThreadPoolExecutor(0, Integer.MAX_VALUE,
                                      60L, TimeUnit.SECONDS,
                                      new SynchronousQueue<Runnable>());
    }

 

corePoolSize = 0,maximumPoolSize = Integer.MAX_VALUE,即线程数量几乎无限制;
keepAliveTime = 60s,线程空闲60s后自动结束。
workQueue 为 SynchronousQueue 同步队列,这个队列类似于一个接力棒,入队出队必须同时传递,因为CachedThreadPool线程创建无限制,不会有队列等待,所以使用SynchronousQueue;
 

适用场景:快速处理大量耗时较短的任务,如Netty的NIO接受请求时,可使用CachedThreadPool。 

  1. SingleThreadExecutor
public static ExecutorService newSingleThreadExecutor() {
        return new FinalizableDelegatedExecutorService
            (new ThreadPoolExecutor(1, 1,
                                    0L, TimeUnit.MILLISECONDS,
                                    new LinkedBlockingQueue<Runnable>()));
    }
  1. ScheduledThreadPool
public static ScheduledExecutorService newScheduledThreadPool(int corePoolSize) {
        return new ScheduledThreadPoolExecutor(corePoolSize);
    }
二、自定义线程池

以下是自定义线程池,使用了有界队列,自定义ThreadFactory和拒绝策略的demo:

public class ThreadTest {

    public static void main(String[] args) throws InterruptedException, IOException {
        int corePoolSize = 2;
        int maximumPoolSize = 4;
        long keepAliveTime = 10;
        TimeUnit unit = TimeUnit.SECONDS;
        BlockingQueue<Runnable> workQueue = new ArrayBlockingQueue<>(2);
        ThreadFactory threadFactory = new NameTreadFactory();
        RejectedExecutionHandler handler = new MyIgnorePolicy();
        ThreadPoolExecutor executor = new ThreadPoolExecutor(corePoolSize, maximumPoolSize, keepAliveTime, unit,
                workQueue, threadFactory, handler);
        executor.prestartAllCoreThreads(); // 预启动所有核心线程
        
        for (int i = 1; i <= 10; i++) {
            MyTask task = new MyTask(String.valueOf(i));
            executor.execute(task);
        }

        System.in.read(); //阻塞主线程
    }

    static class NameTreadFactory implements ThreadFactory {

        private final AtomicInteger mThreadNum = new AtomicInteger(1);

        @Override
        public Thread newThread(Runnable r) {
            Thread t = new Thread(r, "my-thread-" + mThreadNum.getAndIncrement());
            System.out.println(t.getName() + " has been created");
            return t;
        }
    }

    public static class MyIgnorePolicy implements RejectedExecutionHandler {

        public void rejectedExecution(Runnable r, ThreadPoolExecutor e) {
            doLog(r, e);
        }

        private void doLog(Runnable r, ThreadPoolExecutor e) {
            // 可做日志记录等
            System.err.println( r.toString() + " rejected");
//          System.out.println("completedTaskCount: " + e.getCompletedTaskCount());
        }
    }

    static class MyTask implements Runnable {
        private String name;

        public MyTask(String name) {
            this.name = name;
        }

        @Override
        public void run() {
            try {
                System.out.println(this.toString() + " is running!");
                Thread.sleep(3000); //让任务执行慢点
            } catch (InterruptedException e) {
                e.printStackTrace();
            }
        }

        public String getName() {
            return name;
        }

        @Override
        public String toString() {
            return "MyTask [name=" + name + "]";
        }
    }
}

输出结果如下:

my-thread-1 has been created
my-thread-2 has been created
my-thread-3 has been created
MyTask [name=2] is running!
MyTask [name=1] is running!
my-thread-4 has been created
MyTask [name=3] is running!
MyTask [name=6] is running!
MyTask [name=7] rejected
MyTask [name=8] rejected
MyTask [name=9] rejected
MyTask [name=10] rejected
MyTask [name=4] is running!
MyTask [name=5] is running!

其中线程线程1-4先占满了核心线程和最大线程数量,然后4、5线程进入等待队列,7-10线程被直接忽略拒绝执行,等1-4线程中有线程执行完后通知4、5线程继续执行。

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